Light Reading
The traditional microwave frequency bands are almost depleted in the face of fast-growing MBB demand, making microwave expansion to the higher bands an inevitability

Second-Generation E-Band for LTE Backhaul

Light Reading
Huawei Press Releases
Light Reading
2/28/2013
50%
50%

The traditional microwave frequency bands (6 to 42GHz) are almost depleted in the face of fast-growing mobile broadband (MBB) demand, making microwave expansion to the higher bands an inevitability. Enabling gigabit-per-second data rates, E-Band (80GHz) is abundant, capacious, affordable, and adaptable for dense deployment, making it a key trend in carrier-class wireless transmission. E-Band for large-capacity backhaul E-band is the conventional name of the portion of electromagnetic spectrum lying at 80GHz (71 to 76GHz and 81 to 86GHz), which is currently the highest frequency used for commercial telecommunication networks. With a 10GHz frequency band, E-band can be divided into 19 basic 250MHz channels, which can be flexibly combined and offer gigabit-range data rates. With higher-order modulation schemes, E-band can enable 1-to-5Gbps or even 10Gbps air interface capacities. Assuming 400Mbps as a baseline requirement for the backhaul of a GSM/UMTS/LTE site (300Mbps for LTE services), traditional microwave (6 to 42GHz) must allocate the maximum 56MHz channel and use 256QAM to meet transmission requirements, making 400Mbps represents the maximum capacity enabled by traditional microwave, without using any capacity enhancement techniques. E-band, on the other hand, can secure 400Mbps transmission by using QPSK in one 250MHz channel only. By using higher order modulations, such as 64QAM in a 500MHz channel (two 250MHz), E-Band can deliver a speed of about 2.5Gbps without effort. For a GSM/UMTS site in a live network, its capacity can generally reach 100Mbps; yet large traffic convergence links still need Gbps capacity to transport data to core networks, and E-Band is perfectly positioned for this scenario. With the spectrum allocation at 80GHz, E-Band offers a number of benefits including the narrow pencil beam that enhance frequency reuse and interference protection, making it ideal for dense LTE site backhaul. When allocating microwave spectrum, operators can flexibly use one or combine multiple 250MHz channels, together with capacity enhanced technologies such as adaptive modulation (AM) and adaptive coding/channel spacing (AC), In this way, spectrum can be flexibly allocated in dense urban areas for backhaul purposes, and multiple operators can deploy E-Band microwave networks in the same area. As of the end of 2012, over 40 markets globally opened their E-Band frequency resources. To encourage more applications, most markets offer free or slightly-charged E-Band frequency bands, easing the microwave spectrum shortage and reducing operator investment. Second-generation E-Band Existing E-Band microwave equipment is generally for enterprise applications, and has certain limits on transport capacity, spectrum efficiency, and network management. Deficiencies include the use of low modulations (such as BPSK); spectral inefficiency (1GHz is needed to reach Gbps speed); lack of support for packet transmission (any L2 or L3 feature is left to the switch or router that the radio is connected to); late/limited support for synchronous Ethernet; lack of support for IEEE1588v2; lack of carrier-class service guarantees; and very high costs (compared to 38GHz equipment) due to low volumes and expensive first- generation components. Growing mobile broadband and LTE services are expected to push the transmission capacity of a single base station to the Gbps range, and LTE networks also demand greater synchronization and network management. First-generation E-Band, which focuses on enterprise applications, can hardly meet operator needs for carrier-class, low-cost backhaul.

second generation E-band
In October 2012, Huawei launched the industry’s first second-generation E-Band microwave solution, representing a major upgrade in terms of capacity, transmission efficiency, clock synchronization, network management, and TCO reduction.
  • High capacity Second-generation E-Band supports 64QAM and can deliver 1.2Gbps transport without capacity enhancements such as header compression (which doubles the capacity when applied). Since it is possible to bundle more than one 250MHz channel, second-generation E-Band can easily reach a peak capacity of roughly 2.5Gbps using a 500MHz channel. Thanks to these features, Gbps backhaul per base station is assured for LTE.
  • Enhanced transmission efficiency Adaptive modulation and adaptive channel size are now applied to second-generation E-Band, enhancing the capacity and reliability of microwave links, while minimizing the impact of bad weather and environmental changes. Second-generation E-Band also supports QPSK and 64QAM, six-grades working modes (to adapt to changing climatic conditions), dynamic band selection (250/500MHz), and bandwidth flexibility (from 100Mbps to 2.5Gbps). Packet header compression (bandwidth acceleration) allows operators to equalize the transmission efficiency of small packets with that of larger packets, while increasing the equivalent throughput of the radio link. Second-generation E-Band compresses both the L2 (Ethernet) and L3 (UDP, IP, IPv4 and IPv6) headers going through the link, improving the transport efficiency for small packets (≤128Bytes) by 50 to 60%. As LTE services contain a large portion of small packets, second-generation E-Band can significantly enhance overall traffic transport efficiency.
  • Clock synchronization Clock synchronization is a basic feature of mobile backhaul networks, but first-generation E-Band supports only Synchronous Ethernet for clock signal transference, which can hardly meet the phase synchronization needs of LTE services. Second-generation E-Band, while also supporting Synchronous Ethernet, enables IEEE 1588v2 transparent clock (TC), boundary clock (BC), and ordinary clock (OC) functionality. It also uses an out-of-band synchronization channel to ensure precise packet transport.
  • Simplified network management Second-generation E-Band has abundant network management features, including extensive protection schemes for equipment, links and networks; full L2 switching; deep E2E QoS and SLA support; L2 OAM for troubleshooting; and MPLS-TP support to ensure E2E packet service transport and management.
  • TCO reduction There are a huge number of factors determining the actual TCO of a given technology. Besides significant spectrum cost savings, second-generation E-Band also delivers other key economic benefits such as carrier-class reliability, thanks to its design and components, as well as significantly enhanced efficiency in terms of capacity (cost/Mbps) and power consumption (W/Mbps), thanks to its vastly increased spectrum efficiency and achievable top speed. It also features a compact outdoor design and scalable GE interfaces, as well as timely deployment features such as USB-key configuration, one-for-all cable functionality (one cable for service provisioning, electricity, and network management). And finally, network management is unified for optical infrastructure, routers, and other microwave equipment. According to Dell’Oro, ultra-high-capacity microwave revenue would grow at a 26% CAGR between 2012 and 2017. With second-generation E-Band, operators can build a high-quality ultra-broadband backhaul network and use it in high-bandwidth convergent links, as an add-on to optical transport networks, and in backhaul networks for micro base stations and small cells. Many operators have started commercial deployment of second-generation E-Band, including Vodafone, France Telecom, Deutsche Telekom, Telefónica, Telenor, and MegaFon.
    (0)  | 
    Comment  | 
    Print  | 
  • Newest First  |  Oldest First  |  Threaded View
    Flash Poll
    From The Founder
    It's clear to me that the communications industry is divided into two types of people, and only one is living in the real world.
    LRTV Custom TV
    Razorsight Expert's Advice on Real-Time Analytics

    11|27|14   |   1:43   |   (0) comments


    Razorsight's powerful cloud-based Predictive Analytics solutions are used by the world's leading communications and media brands to drive smarter decisions, enable faster actions and optimize outcomes. Get expert advice.
    LRTV Interviews
    From 4G to 5G: Alcatel-Lucent's Dave Geary

    11|25|14   |   09:09   |   (1) comment


    Dave Geary, President of Wireless at Alcatel-Lucent, talks about the evolution of the 4G market, small cells, partnerships, 5G and the IoT.
    LRTV Huawei Video Resource Center
    Building a Secure Telefonica Network With Huawei's High-End Firewall

    11|24|14   |   4:37   |   (0) comments


    Andrew Davies, IP architect of the Telefonica, a leading digital communications company, discusses the Huawei security gateway solution and putting the solution into the testbed.
    LRTV Huawei Video Resource Center
    Huawei Partners with Spirent to Verify CE12816's 10GE Port & TRILL Networking Capabilities

    11|24|14   |   2:50   |   (0) comments


    Spirent Communications is the world's leading supplier for telecom testing appliances and solutions. Spirent has been in a close partnership with Huawei for a long time.
    LRTV Huawei Video Resource Center
    Saudi Airlines & Its ICT Transformation

    11|24|14   |   2:07   |   (0) comments


    In this video, Saudi Airlines discusses its network problems and how Huawei's Agile Network is its all-in-one solution.
    LRTV Huawei Video Resource Center
    Huawei's Agile Switch Benefiting Saudi Arabia's Yamamah Hospital

    11|24|14   |   2:40   |   (0) comments


    Saudi Arabia's Yamamah Hospital speaks about how Huawei's Agile Switch has improved the medical service's network infrastructure.
    LRTV Huawei Video Resource Center
    FanPlay & Huawei Build a Wireless Agile Smart Stadium

    11|24|14   |   2:13   |   (0) comments


    FanPlay is a cloud-based white label service, which is effectively a football fan engagement platform underpinned by mobile payment technology.
    LRTV Huawei Video Resource Center
    Building an Agile Stadium

    11|24|14   |   3:54   |   (0) comments


    Stadiums may be thousands of tons of concrete and steel, but they now need to be agile. Being at the stadium may not be as alluring as it once was. Sports franchises and stadium operators discuss how to get fans back.
    LRTV Huawei Video Resource Center
    Huawei Helps ChinaCache Tackle Challenges in the Internet Industry

    11|24|14   |   3:09   |   (0) comments


    ChinaCache is China's largest content distribution network supplier. Huawei's CE12800 has provided ChinaCache with very strong support in its establishment of an infrastructure network.
    LRTV Huawei Video Resource Center
    Cefinity on Managed Security Services & Next-Generation Firewall

    11|24|14   |   7:05   |   (0) comments


    Cefinity is a cloud management service provider in Southeast Asia. Ivan Zhang, CEO of the company, discusses the implementation of security service management in the cloud era.
    LRTV Huawei Video Resource Center
    Huawei's Agile Gateway in the Eyes of Cefinity

    11|24|14   |   2:11   |   (0) comments


    Cefinity is a managed service provider for enterprise networks. The company currently uses Huawei's AR series routers for the most complete range of functions. CEO Ivan Zhang speaks about the advantages of the AR series routers.
    LRTV Huawei Video Resource Center
    CTO of Bus-Online Talks About Huawei's Agile Gateway

    11|24|14   |   2:53   |   (0) comments


    Bus-Online covers around 100 million users everyday. In addition to providing mobile TV, and advertising services to the public, Bus-Online has also entered the field of mobile Internet.
    Upcoming Live Events
    December 2, 2014, New York City
    December 3, 2014, New York City
    December 8-10, 2014, Reykjavik, Iceland
    February 10, 2015, Atlanta, GA
    April 14, 2015, New York City, NY
    May 6, 2015, McCormick Convention Center, Chicago, IL
    May 13-14, 2015, The Westin Peachtree, Atlanta, GA
    June 9-10, 2015, Chicago, IL
    Infographics
    Irish Telecom outlines the rise of VoIP technology, including its adoption within businesses and their perception of its quality.
    Hot Topics
    Net Neutrality Even Mark Cuban Could Love
    Mitch Wagner, West Coast Bureau Chief, Light Reading, 11/26/2014
    Do You Have a 2020 Vision?
    Dennis Mendyk, Vice President of Research, Heavy Reading, 11/21/2014
    Why 5G Is a Different Beast
    Robert Clark, 11/26/2014
    Eurobites: Net Neutrality Battle Looms
    Paul Rainford, Assistant Editor, Europe, 11/27/2014
    New Juniper CEO Can Be Thankful for $14.5M
    Mitch Wagner, West Coast Bureau Chief, Light Reading, 11/25/2014
    Like Us on Facebook
    Twitter Feed