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Thanks for the clarification and the references Nick! I wil certainly check them.

Containers are beginning to be used in Telco architectures. AT&T has an initiative called SDN 2.0. Also check out CORD ("central offices re-architected as data-centers"). The privacy and security characteristics of "slicing" depends on how the slicing is implemented. In some cases, isolation provides privacy. But, there are exceptions. Check out the paper "Hey You, Get Off My Cloud!" by Ristenpart et al., for example. And some types of slicing like BGP MPLS VPNs (RFC 2547) do not provide any security or privacy by default.

Multi-tenant datacenters: enterprises still show much resistance to the idea of having their confidential data stored in the same infaestructure where their competitors also have their data. This is driving the adoption of hybrid cloud solutions.

Are network slices totally isolated from each other? No privacy or security issues?

Are containers used for telecom network virtualization, or are they specific to DC virtualization?

More than the usual slide set, SDN/NFV software demos are critical to show their true benefits.

NFV is driving CSPs to move from "simple" la trials towards more complex lab and commercial PoCs, in order to validate the technology itself, as well as its inter-operability across multiple vendors.

It has been one the the most informative and detailed presentation I have attended. Thanks a lot Nick and Kelsey, great tutorial

Yes traying cultural evolution and experimentation

From Tlanepantla; México. Learning from the archive

Testing is encouraged, but the results level or time allowed to demonstrate success has become harder to reach

Poll 1: employees are expected to acheive the same amount of results or more with fewer resources


What are the hardware requirements?

Excellent slide pack Nick! this could trigger a ton of reflection to dig deeper, thanks LR for enabling such powerful learning!

the potential for quick experimentation  enabled by SDN/NFV, I am sure will result in a certain talent flow from equipment vendors to operators! Exciting times, seems there is opportunity for innovation for everyone in this virtual network world  :)

@ Nick Service chaining and orchestration: where do we place the virtual elements, I see the concepts I learned in Operations research/Transportation Problem (many years back) really becoming useful now :)

Slide 49/50 @Nick, your example of dropping Billing service  in a VM and moving around close to the roaming subscriber there by reducing the cost of backhauling the traffic to the home country made the simplest and powerful usecase!

@Nick Slide 6: your mention of virtualisation/SDN/NFV as  "networking @ the speed of software" and "re-wiring the network on the fly with coding" made my day!

Slide3: Is there anything like physical IP network? Network/Transport layers basically create virtual networks on top of the physical paths set up by datalink/physical layers, right?

listening offline from Bangalore!

Hi Nick, I found your presentation extremely informative on NFV design and infrastructure.

Have you found any NFV infrastructure differences between an AT&T cloud platform (SP) and a AWS / Google / Facebook platforms? Is there any real significant differences ?

@Tony - glad you enjoyed the recording! Security is certainly a huge concern and I think increased automation can boost security measures. The tools are there but employees need to harness the right skillsets to best use those security tools. You should join us on Monday at 1pm ET for Assuring Security in a Cloud-Based NFVi to ask Heavy Reading Chief Analyst Patrick Donegan your security questions!

Thanks for providing the archive.

Do you think "security", in general, is keeping pace with Network virtualization - SDN / NFV?

Great policy view on virtualiztion here!

Listening to the archive version..thanks


thanks for the archive, nice that you provide the ability for us to hear great speakers either live or on the archive. 

Insightful great job @nick feamster

Great slide pesentation. thanks

how does it effect latency 

Dang hated missing this but its great thats it archived. 

I followed this Professor's course on SDN at Coursera!! He is the best. Excited to hear him again. Sadly I missed the live conversation.

When Network Slicing is used, will the signal flow (a Telco's concern) within the network be increased by many folds? 

Excellent slides! Thank you.


How to ensure all VMs and containers sync up in the system time, assuming that VM and container exist in the same overall network.


Can a VM runs in a Container and via verse?


No cultural changes for NFV, just have to be adapt to the new technology.



For "MANO", yes, having the right visibility is abolutely key.  Hard to orchestrate / optimize without having accurate inputs!

I see a question on SD-WAN, as well. SD-WAN is a really interesting area. Basically, a lot of this boils down to constructing tunnels with various QoS guarantees. Viptela and several other companies are in this space.  Security and performance are key considerations for these providers.  Viptela, for example, helps you construct virtual links that have specific performance and security properties, masking a lot of the key distribution and performance complications that operators would otherwise face.  There are other companies trying to tackle this problem, as well (Velocloud, Glue, etc.)

Thanks @Nick and @Kelsey! Thank you everyone for a great class today! Hope to see you all back on Friday for Virtualization: Automation!

Thanks, @Nick, excellent discussion today, thanks for lecturing for Upskill U!

It's sounds like MANO is a key concept to achieving visibility for the containered NFV environment.  Is visibility a layer question that requires orchestration? expecially if one is trying to provide end-2-end SLA. to achieving managed performance.


Thanks, @Kelsey, for the opportunity to give this lecture. I thoroughly enjoyed talking with everyone.

bye @john see you next time! Thanks for joining and the excellent questions

One more note on security cutting both ways: the "network slicing" idea that I presented in the lecture could actually help security, by ensuring that different "tenants" cannot intefere with one another.  And, deployment of firewalls, etc. as network functions might also offer new opportunities to improve security.

But, the lack of visibility that Kelsey raised is an important consideration, too.

Thank you for the lecture. Time to go.

@Nick - thank you for entertaining my questions - much obliged!

Thank you for the lecture!

Good night!

So many small companies put let Google handle their email for them, I'm guessing that privacy isn't such a concern all the time for those companies. That means security in virtualized networks may not be as a big a concern as is thought, at least for smaller companies.

NFV's control plane might be centralized _for a particular provider_. A carrier like AT&T, for example, might want to centrally manage the deployment of different middlebox functions (billing, firewalling, WAN optimization, etc.).

I don't think we'll see centralization _across_ carriers anytime soon, but certainly within any single carrier, that's already happening.

@sawad, send us an email to [email protected] and we'll get those to you

Thanks, @Nick, and excellent lecture! Thanks also to our listeners for the excellent questions and discussion!

I can pass references to Kelsey, no problem!

QoS and NFV: excellent question.

Here's a thought I had on that.  You could run a traffic shaping device as a virtual network function and deploy traffic shapers on underlying commodity hardware.  This could be very useful in certain cases.  Imagine if you could deploy this kind of protocol-agnostic traffic management in virtual CPE nodes, for example:


Can we get a list of references?


Slides were really helpful


Fantastic question.  Network security---and debugging in general---can be more difficult.  It's easiest to understand with debugging: To go back to my example in lecture on the NYC-DC "virtual link".  Suppose I see poor performance or high packet loss on that "link".  In fact, I will need additional visibility to understand which underlying physical link is actually causing poor performance.

Security problems cut both ways.  This kind of visibility challenge makes security harder in some cases.  But, in others, the additional isolation that NFV/virtualization provides can actually help in some cases.



@bchen the recording will be posted shortly

Is there a link to rerun this audio?

@Nick - any thoughts on QoS and the impact of NFV?


The Internet's control plane paradigm is highly distributed.  Would you say that NFV points to an abstraction of a centralized control plane? What would you say are the tradeoffs involved?

Thank you for the slides - very helpful!

You're very welcome! Glad I could pick up many of the questions I saw coming through.  Yes, there is a lot of work to be done, for sure.  I tried to hit the high points. :-)


Since virtualization allows the creation of virtual nodes that may be unrelated to the underlying physical infrastructure, isn't network security more difficult to maintain, since virtual nodes could be created by anyone, anywhere?

Lots of great questions and discussion on the board today! 

Hi Nick it was pleasure listening to you as well

Nick, thx very much. Great content (has been rather for 3 hours :-))

Thans for another great session

Thank you, good presentation, lots of work to be done ...

Thank you very much for the lecture!

Very good information, thank you

@rtyrrell (mirror): Redundancy should be built-in, no?

Hello Nick, I am interesting in knowing SD WAN business case as well. It would be nice ot have your thoughts on some tangible benefits that every CIO and CFO looks for..Your comments and thoughts.

Is resilience an issue, can you mirror containers


Does QoS and priority routing help in NFV ?

Will creating specialised Tunnels for VoIP help in reducing latency ?


For CPE, for example, you have a new enteprise.  They want connectivity, but also load-balancing, firewall, virua-protection. With orchestration, you have a recipe you can start and then it builds out using virtualized infrastructure in the CSPs data center rather than specific devices that have to be deployed and manually ocnfigured at the customer prem.

@Michelle @Faisal also he teaches a course in Computer Networking on Udacity

Do you have an example of a business case for NFV? I can imagine that convincing CFOs on the business benefits of NFV may be difficult.

Orchestration is, basically, a recipe-based way of building out virutalization infrastructure.  For network functions, it might build out a service chain. 

Thanks for the info on the Coursera course @Faisal

Would you say that most operators start network functions virtualisation in the core network, gradually moving to aggregation and access networks? 

@chimbot (latency): Regional nodes should solve most latency problems within an area, no?

that is a good question chimbot!  Extra latency = poorer call quality KPIs

How does one ensure superb call quality in NFV?

FYI, Nick ran an SDN course on Coursera, not sure if he is running one now

Since the VMs could be sitting anywhere in the world, doesn't the round trip to and from the VMs introduce significant latency, thereby affecting performance?

ETSI OSM, Open-O are driving vendor neutrality a bit on the NFV side, MEF, too. 

@ maryam, there are two views....one NFV, NV increases security.... the other school just say the opposite

Regarding the use cases for NFV, what about CPE?

in Slide 50 a benefit is noted as being - Vendor Neutrality - how is that achieved?

I would imagine a virtual network would make disaster recovery less time consuming, too (as another benefit). 

Laod balancing, virus detection, packet gateways, evolved packet data gateways, firewalls -- rooms and rooms of single-purpose phyisical devices backed-up by closets and closets full of spares. 

Does this not increase latency?

SDN is a great enabler for both NFV and Network virtualization.

Agree on the economies of scale but does it also leave you more open to security risks?

QUESTION: How seamless is the addition of physical resources to maintain virtual network integrity as demand increases? How long is network degradation tolerated before additional resources are brought online?

Mult Tenancy will give the economy of scale and sharing of assets

@[email protected] Other big cloud providers for IaaS: Rackspace, Google Cloud App, Amazon, Microsoft Azure, Salesforce

hi @michelle glad you could join -- slide 38


I guess you never know how much traffic any new tool might get, so it makes sense to be able to rewire accordingly?

Greetings all. Running a bit late... Glad to join the group now.

Network virtualization is very powerful to run experiments on network without bringing down the production network


What other cloud prviders outside of Amazon are using virtualizaion?

I think one of the considerable benefits would be experimentation on virtual network.

How does the traffic flow management impact performance?

what can telecom service providers learn from companies like Amazon that have already implemented virtualization? 

AWS VPC is very useful and easy to set up.

SDN is a bit like being able to reroute the trains from a central, programmable standpoint, rather than the old phyiscal switches.  NFV is basically like taking your home wireless router or what have you, but it runs as software on a computer. The analogies not great, because there are fewer reasons for a home consumer to need NFV, but at the customer premise at a large enterprise, having a number of network functions run as software in the provider's data center rather than a number of physical appliances at the customer prem is pretty sweet -- it means less hardware to upgrade, easier troubleshooting and other benefits. Virtualization of the whole network has cost and elasticity benefits.  Imagine turning off routers or other hardware as the requirements for your network reduce in the evening or on the weekend.  Etc.

i see no pictures in this deck

@dfperdon-no downtime isn't that big a deal.lag depends ultimately on network also

What are the main differences between LXC and Docker?

can you explain little more about container / docker stations w.r.t single OS handling multiple services.. versus having independent Guest OS representing different service servers


Does it also impact performance with this architecture?

@khan-no containers are still not good enough for most enterprises.vms score everytime

How easy is it to move virtual machines from one physical machine to the next? Is there any downtime?

Virtualization serves many purposes beyond just myelin sheath purpose

Do you think Virtual machine will die at some point of time because of popularity of containers ?


The brain analogy is helpful, too. Maybe SDN is like splitting up the functions of one network, and virtualization is like linking more effectively between them? Like the myelin sheath between neural connections in the brain.

Not a cultural change just natural evolution.

The difference is loud and clear...thanks


Yes, traditionally the strengths of some teams was on routing and switching. This change to virtual networks, services, etc... is pushing growth and a change in skills sets... this has called for SMEs on the physical infrastructure to go back and come up to speed on the virtual nature of this movement....etc...

How much change does it take to really master NFV/SDN? If somebody is MEF2.0 certified, how much is it easier to internalise NFV/SDN way of thinking, than one who has no first principles in networking?

QUESTION: How far along has Princeton University gone in implementing virtual networks?

is there not a risk in the environment that an issue at the lower level can wipe out the entire infrastructure - you would potential need dual environments


no, no cultural changes just yet - too early on ...


Not a cultural change per se, but running vm connection on remote connections gives me access to the full internal intranet, which makes working remotely much more effective


we are currently moving forward with it...a lot of things changing

Yes, new culture support experimentation and innovation

Some in the technical side but not on the management and admin side


We are not there yet, still working on it!

Much more experimentation focus. 

Expected consolidation between Network and IT orgs.

More experimentation for sure. Growing each year.

with more services combined on fewer sharded physical substrates will networks be more suseptable (or have a greater effect) to outages from hardware or during natural disasters.

Good question dfperson. Im curious myself

thanks for the questions @Faisal and @dfperson

Are there also window containers ? or only Linux containers

In the case of an outage, what's used for backup purposes? Would a company have a physical machine/infrastructure reserved specifically for that purpose? 

Kanata, Ottawa, Canada


Hi edet0001 the audio should be streaming to your machine. IF you aren't getting audio, refresh your browser. Slides can be downloaded from above. The show is audio only and you can follow along with the slides you've downloaded.

How do I join the conference?


which slide are we on now?


Can you say that Network virtualization and SDN are same things with different names ?


tunnel analogy is helpful, I agree

Thanks John. I got the slides.

Thanks, the tunnel analogy is helpful!


What would be the motivation for networking equipment vendors to support NFV or SDN?

QUESTION: Would  be the difference between vendors in an all-virtualized network?

We are on slide 3 for those following along. If you haven't downloaded the slides yet, they're in the link above the live chat!

Since virtualisation allows the creation of virtual nodes that may be unrelated to the underlying physical infrastructure, isn't network security more difficult to maintain, since virtual nodes could be created by anyone, anywhere?

Good material and thank you for sharing.

Good question for Nick, @Jgoodman

I'm not sure I understand the phrase "logical topology" ?

what questions do you have for Nick?

You can download slides from above under Special Education Materials!

how can we view the slides Nick is mentioned?

check out our spcial educational materials for todays slides!



You can download slides from above under Special Education Materials!

Download slides from the link above, @bart


The voice quality is poor.


In case it was missed, QUESTION: The term "software speeds" can mean a few things. How would you define it here?

Hello from Prague, Czech Republic (Europe)

Wow South Africa! You get the prize for farthest away!

South Africa, Centurion


I am listening in from South Africa

Hi @s_withrow welcome back! I see lots of return listeners!

Good afternoon everyone!  Remember to turn up your volume on the computers.  At the top of the hour an audio player will pop up on your screen.  If you don't see it, try to press F5 to refresh your screen. Remember, there's no slides for this it's just a discussion, so be sure to post your questions, comments and thoughts on the message boards and we will join you on the chat after the audio stream. 

The notes mentioned "software speeds." What does that mean?

Hi, guys.  Looking forward to it today.  :)

Nick will be referencing slides during the presentation - download the slide deck from the link above the live chat!

Hi All! Looking forward to today's class and a really busy chat board. 

Start thinking about what questions you'd like to ask Nick!

Download Nick's slides so you can follow along; see the link above under "Special Education Materials."

I'm very impressed with our lecturer.

Looking forward to this class later today!

I'm looking forward to this lecture on network design and infrastructure. 

Welcome, everyone! Don't forget to download Nick's slide deck (link above the live chat under "Special Educational Materials") before we get started. 

@ss8979 welcome! So glad you could join us

I can't wait to listen to my first class in the UpSkill U.

This is an interesting topic and  i am excited to learn from Mr. FEAMSTER's Experience Here is my question :

How could we diffrentiate between different operators?

 It seems that in order to get the best strategy for each operator from NFV infrastructure point of view ,we should first define some rules and metrics to distinguish between operators. (may be readiness to deploy NFV,  air interface, Back haul , Core ,...?)

Shahram Hassanzadeh(MCI)

I guess I can say I took a Princeton class after this lecture on Monday.

Wow, to get insight from a thought leader on network and networking, fantastic!  Nick's approach of practice to theory to practice with imlications to real and practical problems will be a high value payoff and benefit. 

Nick is quite famous for his SDN lectures, really looking forward to his lectures

Looking forward to hearing Nick's perspective on the best approach to building an NFV infrastructure. 

Nick's bio is quite impressive and I'm excited to learn from his experience on the topic, that's for sure.

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