The German incumbent is weighing options for its infrastructure while the region's powerbrokers continue to advance.
Worth $370 billion in 2006, Spain's biggest telecom operator is valued at just $25 billion today.
The Italian operator's latest strategic plan is probably not going to be a major restorative for a company that seems in perpetual decline.
One study's winner is another's laggard, possibly because researchers cannot agree on what constitutes an essential patent.
Despite concern about the impact of US sanctions, the Chinese equipment giant's networks business is still going strong.